Acute severe hepatitis of unknown etiology in children: A mini-review

Authors

  • Andri Frediansyah National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4923-2948
  • Malik Sallam Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Department of Clinical Laboratories and Forensic Medicine, Jordan University Hospital, Amman Jordan; Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
  • Amanda Yufika Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8408-9396
  • Khan Sharun Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Muhammad Iqhrammullah Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
  • Deepak Chandran Department of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Amrita School of Agricultural Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore, India
  • Sukamto S. Mamada Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7813-2164
  • Dina E. Sallam Pediatrics and Pediatric Nephrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4684-229X
  • Yousef Khader Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid‎, ‎Jordan‎; Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network, Jordan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7830-6857
  • Yohannes K. Lemu Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3142-5266
  • Fauzi Yusuf Gastroenterohepatology Division, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5822-300X
  • James-Paul Kretchy Public Health Unit, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Central University, Accra, Ghana https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1535-937X
  • Ziad Abdeen Al-Quds Nutrition and Health Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Palestine https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5871-0310
  • J. Smith Torres-Roman Universidad Cientifica del Sur, Lima, Peru
  • Yogesh Acharya Western Vascular Institute, University Hospital Galway, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1829-5911
  • Anastasia Bondarenko Pediatric Infectious Disease and Pediatric Immunology Department, Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9737-2868
  • Aamer Ikram National Institutes of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6440-750X
  • Kurnia F. Jamil Division of Tropical Medicine & Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3841-1951
  • Katarzyna Kotfis Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Therapy and Acute Intoxications, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
  • Ai Koyanagi Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, ICREA, CIBERSAM, ISCIII, Barcelona, Spain
  • Lee Smith Centre for Health Performance and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5340-9833
  • Dewi Megawati Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, US; Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Warmadewa University, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Marius Rademaker Waikato Clinical Campus, University of Auckland Medical School, Hamilton, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3393-6748
  • Talha B. Emran Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh Chittagong, Bangladesh https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3188-2272
  • Ziad A. Memish Research & Innovation CentreKing Saud Medical City, Ministry of Health Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, AlFaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5099-0714
  • Sandro Vento Faculty of Medicine, University of Puthisastra, Phnom Penh, Cambodia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0084-4062
  • Firzan Nainu Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0989-4023
  • Harapan Harapan Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Tropical Disease Centre, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7630-8413

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52225/narra.v2i2.83

Keywords:

Acute non hepA–E hepatitis, clinical manifestations, epidemiological characteristics, outbreak, prevention

Abstract

The emergence of acute, severe non hepA–E hepatitis of unknown etiology (ASHUE) has attracted global concern owing to the very young age of the patients and its unknown etiology. Although this condition has been linked to several possible causes, including viral infection, drugs and/or toxin exposure, the exact cause remains unknown; this makes treatment recommendation very difficult. In this review, we summarize recent updates on the clinical manifestations, complemented with laboratory results, case numbers with the global distribution and other epidemiological characteristics, and the possible etiologies. We also provide the proposed actions that could be undertaken to control and prevent further spread of this hepatitis. Since many etiological and pathological aspects of the acute non hepA–E hepatitis remain unclear, further research is needed to minimize the severe impact of this disease.

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