Hepatitis E virus in pigs and the environment: An updated review of public health concerns

Authors

  • Tauseef Ahmad Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8793-273X
  • Hui Jin Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
  • Kuldeep Dhama Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7469-4752
  • Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4501-7354
  • Ruchi Tiwari Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7763-5547
  • Muhammad Bilal School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, China
  • Manish Dhawan Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India; The Trafford Group of Colleges, Manchester, United Kingdom https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7783-7138
  • Talha B. Emran Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong, Bangladesh https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3188-2272
  • Jeehan H. Alestad Immunology and Infectious Microbiology, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Collage of medicine, Microbiology, Jabriya, Kuwait; Kuwait Chair Madam in Antimicrobial Resistance Committee, Alternative Permanent Representative of Kuwait to the United Nation Agencies, Rome, Italy
  • Hatem M. Alhani Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; Department of Infection Control, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; Department of Preventive Medicine and Infection Prevention and Control, Directorate of Mministry of Health, Eastern Region, Dammam, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5253-3971
  • Habib K. BinKhalaf Department of Molecular Laboratory, King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
  • Ali A. Rabaan Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Public Health and Nutrition, The University of Haripur, Haripur, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52225/narra.v2i2.78

Keywords:

Hepatitis E virus, livestock, zoonotic transmission, water-borne, environment

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health problem and is responsible for both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Public health implications of HEV are derived from its transmission route, either water-borne or food-borne, and its zoonotic potential. Not only in developing countries, but HEV cases are also found in a high number in developed countries. The spread of HEV to the environment might pollute surface waters, which could act as the source of infection for both humans and animals. Identification of the virus in animal products suggests the circulation of HEV within water and food chains. High seroprevalence and circulation of HEV in livestock, in particular pigs, as well as in environmental samples warrants further investigation into pig markets. HEV virulence in different environments and meat supply chains could shed light on the possible sources of infection in humans and the degree of occupational risk. The purpose of this review is to discuss HEV infections with an emphasis on livestock- and environment-related risk factors, and food-borne, water-borne, and zoonotic transmissions.

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Published

2022-08-01

Issue

Section

Review Article