A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19


  • Khan Sharun Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1040-3746
  • Ruchi Tiwari Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, India
  • Mohd I. Yatoo Division of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Shuhama, Alusteng Srinagar, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Senthilkumar Natesan Department of Infectious Diseases, Indian Institute of Public Health Gandhinagar, Opp to Airforce station HQ, Gandhinagar, India
  • Dewi Megawati Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Warmadewa University, Denpasar, Indonesia; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, California, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9230-2265
  • Karam P. Singh Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India
  • Izabela Michalak Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8084-9642
  • Kuldeep Dhama Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7469-4752




Drug, viral inhibitor, immunotherapeutic, supportive therapy, nutrition


The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.


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Review Article