Monkeypox: Immune response, vaccination and preventive efforts


  • Youdiil Ophinni Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, United States; Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
  • Andri Frediansyah PRTPP-National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Salin Sirinam Department of Tropical Pediatrics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Dewi Megawati Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States; Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Universitas Warmadewa, Bali, Indonesia
  • Ana M. Stoian Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, CA, United States
  • Seyi S. Enitan Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
  • Richard Y. Akele Department of Biomedical Science, School of Applied Science, University Of Brighton, London, United Kingdom
  • Ranjit Sah Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Krit Pongpirul Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Ziad Abdeen Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem
  • Sevda Aghayeva Department of Gastroenterology, Baku Medical Plaza Hospital, Baku, Azerbaijan
  • Aamer Ikram National Institute of Heath, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Yohannes Kebede Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
  • Uwe Wollina Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Städtisches Klinikum Dresden, Dresden, Germany
  • Kannan Subbaram School of Medicine, The Maldives National University, Maldives
  • Ai Koyanagi Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, ISCIII, Barcelona, Spain
  • Abdulwahed Al Serouri Yemen Field Epidemiology Training Program, Sana'a, Yemen
  • H. Blaise Nguendo-Yongsi Department of Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Central Africa, Yaoundé, Cameroon
  • Jeffrey Edwards Medical Research Foundation of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, Trinidad
  • Dina E. Sallam Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Yousef Khader The Center of Excellence for Applied Epidemiology, The Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET), Amman, Jordan
  • Sandro G. Viveiros-Rosa National Institute of Industrial Property, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Ziad A. Memish Research & Innovation Centre, King Saud Medical City, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, AlFaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Mehrdad Amir-Behghadami Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, Department of Health Service Management, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • Sandro Vento Faculty of Medicine, University of Puthisastra, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • Marius Rademaker Clinical Trial New Zealand, 218 Pembroke Street, Waikato Hospital Campus, Hamilton, New Zealand
  • Malik Sallam Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Department of Clinical Laboratories and Forensic Medicine, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan; Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden



Monkeypox virus, MPXV, outbreak, zoonosis, emerging viral infectious disease


Infectious threats to humans are continuously emerging. The 2022 worldwide monkeypox outbreak is the latest of these threats with the virus rapidly spreading to 106 countries by the end of September 2022. The burden of the ongoing monkeypox outbreak is manifested by 68,000 cumulative confirmed cases and 26 deaths. Although monkeypox is usually a self-limited disease, patients can suffer from extremely painful skin lesions and complications can occur with reported mortalities. The antigenic similarity between the smallpox virus (variola virus) and monkeypox virus can be utilized to prevent monkeypox using smallpox vaccines; treatment is also based on antivirals initially designed to treat smallpox. However, further studies are needed to fully decipher the immune response to monkeypox virus and the immune evasion mechanisms. In this review we provide an up-to-date discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding monkeypox virus with a special focus on innate immune response, immune evasion mechanisms and vaccination against the virus.


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Review Article