Cytokine profiles in dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever: A study from Indonesia


  • Sri Masyeni Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Warmadewa, Bali, Indonesia
  • I Made W. Wardhana Department of Internal Medicine, Freeport Hospital, Irian Jaya, Indonesia
  • Firzan Nainu Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia



Cytokine, dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, severity, infection status


Recent studies have demonstrated that cytokine dysregulation has a critical role in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and interleukin 17 (IL-17) with infection status, and severity of dengue. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at three hospitals in Gianyar regency and Denpasar municipality, Bali, Indonesia, from June to December 2022. Sixty-four dengue infected patients were involved. Patients’ serum was tested for dengue infection using NS1 antigen rapid test, dengue virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) test, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection status was determined by combining serological and RT-PCR results, categorizing patients into primary and secondary infections. The present study found that DF patients had lower TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17 but higher IL-10 levels compared to DHF patients (p<0.001). Elevated TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17 levels were higher in secondary infection, while IL-10 level was higher in primary infection (p<0.001). In conclusion, cytokines play a crucial role in the interplay between cytokine dysregulation and dengue infection dynamics.


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