Clinical and oral microbiome pattern of halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis
Keywords:Halitosis, oral microbiome, periodontitis, gingivitis, oral malodour
Halitosis is caused by a bacterial proteolytic process that induces the production of volatile sulfur compounds, odor-causing gases. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical oral hygiene state and oral microbiome pattern of halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis. The oral hygiene state of halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis was assessed using the oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), decay missing filled teeth (DMFT), and tongue biofilm. The dorsum of the tongue and subgingival swabs were cultured for bacteria, and bacterial morphology was evaluated using Gram staining. Evaluation of the bacterial genus using the Bergey's systematic bacteriology diagram as a guide. A total of ten patients with periodontitis and gingivitis were included. Our data indicated that the scores of OHI-S and DMFT were different significantly between halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis (both had p<0.001) while tongue biofilm score was not different between groups. On the dorsum of the tongue, periodontitis patients had a significant higher oral microbiome population (85.65x106 CFU/mL) compared to those with gingivitis (0.047x106 CFU/mL) with p=0.002. In contrast, the number of microbiomes in the subgingival had no significant different between periodontitis and gingivitis. On the dorsum of the tongue, six bacterial genera were isolated from periodontitis cases and seven genera were detected from gingivitis patients. On subgingival, 10 and 15 genera were identified from periodontitis and gingivitis, respectively. Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus were the most prevalent among periodontitis cases while Porphyromonas was the most prevalent in gingivitis patients. In conclusion, although OHI-S and DMFT are different between periodontitis and gingivitis, overlapping of bacterial genera was detected between periodontitis and gingivitis cases.
Copyright (c) 2023 Diana S. Ningsih, Rinaldi Idroes, Boy M. Bachtiar, Khairan Khairan, Trina E. Tallei, Pati Kemala, Nur B. Maulydia, Ghazi M. Idroes, Zuchra Helwani
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