Narra J <div id="groups"> <div id="groups"> <div class="group"> <h2>Editor in Chief</h2> <div class="editorial-list"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Harapan Harapan, MD., PhD</strong></li> <li>Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine</li> <li>Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">55844857500</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="group"> <h2>Co-Editor in Chief</h2> <div class="editorial-list"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Kuldeep Dhama, MVSc., PhD</strong></li> <li>NAAS Associate, Principal Scientist</li> <li>ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">6507396956</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Abram L. Wagner, PhD, MPH</strong></li> <li>School of Public Health</li> <li>University of Michigan</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">56178049300</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="group"> <h2>Editorial Board</h2> <div class="editorial-list"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="üller.png" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Ruth Müller, PhD</strong></li> <li>Department of Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">25653255200</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Mahir Gachabayov, MD., PhD</strong></li> <li>School of Medicine</li> <li>New York Medical College, USA</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">56626010400</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Morteza Arab-Zozani, PhD</strong></li> <li>School of Public Health</li> <li>Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), Iran</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">57210284593</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Talha Bin Emran, PhD</strong></li> <li>Department of Pharmacy</li> <li>BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Bangladesh</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">55325267100</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, PhD</strong></li> <li>Department of Public Health</li> <li>Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">57195329470</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Arief Budi Witarto, PhD</strong></li> <li>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology</li> <li>Indonesian Defense University, Indonesia</li> <li>Scopus ID : <a title="Scopus ID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-toggle="tooltip">6507004235</a></li> <li>Email : <a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="group"> <h2>Managing Editor</h2> <div class="editorial-list"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Henry Surendra, PhD</strong></li> <li>Eijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Indonesia</li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Muhammad Iqhrammullah, M.S</strong></li> <li>Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia</li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="img-profile"> <div class="imgthumb"><img src="" alt="Profile Image" width="75" height="100" /></div> </div> <div class="team-content"> <div class="team-aff"> <ul class="list-unstyled"> <li><strong>Baidillah Zulkifli, M.VetMed</strong></li> <li>Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia</li> </ul> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> Narra Sains Indonesia en-US Narra J 2807-2618 Application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology in various fields: A review <p class="Abstract-Narra"><a name="_Hlk134475594"></a></p> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><a name="_Hlk134475594"></a></p> <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><a name="_Hlk134475594"></a><span lang="EN-US">CRISPR-Cas9 has emerged as a revolutionary tool that enables precise and efficient modifications of the genetic material. This review provides a comprehensive overview of CRISPR-Cas9 technology and its applications in genome editing. We begin by describing the fundamental principles of CRISPR-Cas9 technology, explaining how the system utilizes a single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct the Cas9 nuclease to specific DNA sequences in the genome, resulting in targeted double-stranded breaks. In this review, we provide in-depth explorations of CRISPR-Cas9 technology and its applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental sciences, fisheries, nanotechnology, bioinformatics, and biotechnology. We also highlight its potential, ongoing research, and the ethical considerations and controversies surrounding its use. This review might contribute to the understanding of CRISPR-Cas9 technology and its implications in various fields, paving the way for future developments and responsible applications of this transformative technology.</span></p> </div> </div> </div> Arif NM. Ansori Yulanda Antonius Raden JK. Susilo Suhaila Hayaza Viol D. Kharisma Arli A. Parikesit Rahadian Zainul Vikash Jakhmola Taru Saklani Maksim Rebezov Md. Emdad Ullah Nikolai Maksimiuk Marina Derkho Pavel Burkov Copyright (c) 2023 Arif NM. Ansori, Yulanda Antonius, Raden JK. Susilo, Suhaila Hayaza, Viol D. Kharisma, Arli A. Parikesit, Rahadian JK. Zainul, Vikash Jakhmola, Taru Saklani, Maksim Rebezov, Md. Emdad Ullah, Nikolai Maksimiuk, Marina Derkho, Pavel Burkov 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e184 e184 10.52225/narra.v3i2.184 Long-term pulmonary and extra-pulmonary consequences of COVID-19: A comprehensive review of current evidence and future perspectives <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">The global impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been significant, affecting countless individuals worldwide. The existence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to considerable levels of illness and mortality. While considerable attention has been devoted to the immediate handling of COVID-19, there is a growing concern about the long-term effects of this disease. The recent studies have brought to light various complexities associated with COVID-19, encompassing both respiratory and non-respiratory problems such as lung scarring, heart diseases, neurological effects, and psychological consequences. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the persistent repercussions of COVID-19. It presents a summary of recent studies that have examined the frequency and severity of these complications, as well as an exploration of the potential mechanisms that contribute to their development. Specifically, it delves into the role of immune dysregulation, prolonged inflammation, and dysfunction of blood vessel linings in the origin of these complications. Moreover, the clinical significance of these long-term consequences is discussed, including their potential impact on healthcare systems and society as a whole. Our review highlights the necessity for continuous monitoring and management of patients diagnosed with COVID-19, along with the importance of conducting follow-up studies over an extended period to determine the most effective strategies for prevention and treatment of these complications.</span></p> </div> </div> Mayur Wanjari Sampada Late Ranjana Sharma Pratiksha Munjewar Copyright (c) 2023 Mayur Wanjari, Sampada Late, Ranjana Sharma, Pratiksha Munjewar 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e156 e156 10.52225/narra.v3i2.156 Role of forkhead box protein 2 (FOXP2) in oral-motor abilities of preterm infants: A brief literature review <p>Preterm infants, born before the 37-week gestation period, have limited storage for nutrients at birth and are vulnerable to poor feeding, severe nutritional deficits and growth retardation. The immature gastrointestinal system leads preterm infants to experience a delay in initiating enteral nutrition. Inappropriate feeding can cause acute and long-term morbidity, prolonged hospitalization and increased treatment cost. Generally, preterm infants that are born after 32 weeks of gestation without severe comorbidities do not have dysphagia and should start oral feeding soon after birth. Preterm infants should have well-developed sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination by 32–34 weeks of gestational age. However, some infants take days or weeks to master the skill. The oral feeding development involves forkhead box protein 2 (FOXP2)-expressing neurons that are found in the deep layers of the cortex, basal ganglia, parts of the thalamus and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. In mammals, these areas belong to the brain network circuits working for motor coordination in learning and acquiring sensorimotor skills. This review aimed to describe the role of FOXP2 in oral-motor skills in preterm infants, including oral feeding, sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and language development. The oral-motor skills development could be an early predictor for language delay in premature infants, representing a vulnerable group susceptible to such delays.</p> Mauliza Mauliza Herlina Dimiati Muslim Akmal Imran Imran Copyright (c) 2023 Mauliza Mauliza , Herlina Dimiati, Muslim Akmal, Imran Imran 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e237 e237 10.52225/narra.v3i2.237 Challenges and adversities among doctors in the era of healthcare disruption: Reflection from COVID-19 pandemic <div> <div> <p class="6Abstractbody"><span lang="EN-US">The doctor's profession is noble and tied up with quite strict rules, both in terms of ethics as well as discipline. Naturally, there is a problem of asymmetrical information between doctors and patients, often leading to misunderstandings. The purpose of this review is to map the available evidence related to the challenges and difficulties faced by doctors in the era of disruption. The evidence indicate that disruption of health services has both positive and negative effects. Many aspects related to the use of technology in the medical practices including innovation, cost-effectiveness, and quality improvement. However, psychologically, the doctors often get frustrated by internal or external triggers. The external factors, ranges from the equipment and work procedures, for instance, using high technology, communication with management, inter-professional relationships, patients, and their families. Volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) could cause stress and burnout. In this case, doctors are highly vulnerable, and consequently, have the potential to make mistakes. Therefore, the adversity faced by doctors ought to be mapped. Resilience is a barrier against stress and burnout and the ability to adapt in resilience among doctors is important factor in dealing with the disruption era.</span></p> </div> </div> Tri A. Sugiyatmi Usman Hadi Djazuly Chalidyanto Yashwant Pathak Muhammad Miftahussurur Copyright (c) 2023 Tri A. Sugiyatmi, Usman Hadi, Djazuly Chalidyanto, Yashwant Pathak, Muhammad Miftahussurur 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e134 e134 10.52225/narra.v3i2.134 Celiac disease: Pathogenesis, disease management and new insights into the herbal-based treatments <div> <div> <p class="NAbstractNEW"><span lang="EN-US">Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten intolerance autoimmune disorder which its symptoms involve the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes the other organs. It is one of the most prevalent health problems rising in many populations as statistics show that in every 100 people about one person is suffering from CD. It has been observed that the persons who genetically contain the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 and HLA DQ8 genes involved in the immune system haplotypes are more prone to develop an allergy to gluten. The only treatment currently available for CD is a strict gluten-free diet. However, recent research has shown promising new insights into the herbal-based treatments of CD. New insight on CD is now offering various prospects to manage its treatment, diagnosis, and serving in the development of advanced therapies. Several herbs and botanical extracts have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and gut-healing properties that make them potential candidates for the management of CD</span><span lang="EN-US">.</span><span lang="EN-US"> Here, we provide an updated review on pathogeneses and managements of CD. In particular, we summarize the current understandings of herbal-based treatments for CD and highlights their potential benefits.</span></p> </div> </div> Pooja Mittal Disha Arora Smriti Parashar Rajat Goyal Amir Khan Hitesh Chopra Dinesh K. Mishra Rupesh K. Gautam Kuldeep Dhama Copyright (c) 2023 Pooja Mittal, Disha Arora, Smriti Parashar, Rajat Goyal, Amir Khan, Hitesh Chopra, Dinesh K. Mishra, Rupesh K. Gautam, Kuldeep Dhama 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 10.52225/narra.v3i2.147 The role of N-acetylcysteine in decreasing neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in COVID-19 patients: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial <div> <div> <p class="NAbstractNEW"><span lang="EN-US">N-acetylcysteine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that could potentially improve the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. N-acetylcysteine potentially inhibits NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome and results in control oxidative stress and cytokine release in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of N-acetylcysteine in reducing the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted among severe and moderate COVID-19 patients. The treatment group received oral 1200 mg daily of N-acetylcysteine (three times a day) and the standard care for COVID-19, while the control group received standard care for COVID-19 and a placebo. The NLR was determined on the first day of admission and after the seventh day of treatment. A paired Student t-test was used to compare the NLR before and after treatment while independent Student t-test was used to compare the NLR between treatment and control groups. A total of 40 severe and moderate COVID-19 were enrolled, 20 people in each group, with a mean age was 44.68±13.24 years old. The mean NLR on the first day was 9.44 in the treatment group and 8.84 in the control group. After the seventh day, the mean NLR was 4.27 and 11.54 in the treatment group and control group, respectively. The mean changes of NLR (the pre-treatment compared to post-treatment) in the treatment and control group were reduced 4.05 and increased 3.34, respectively. The NLR in treatment group significantly decreased compared to the control group (<em>p&lt;</em>0.001). In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine 1200 mg daily could reduce the NLR in severe and moderate COVID-19 patients.</span></p> </div> </div> Nurhasan A. Prabowo Marcellino A. Megantara Hendrastutik Apriningsih Copyright (c) 2023 Nurhasan A. Prabowo, Marcellino A. Megantara, Hendrastutik Apriningsih 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e121 e121 10.52225/narra.v3i2.121 Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of Nothopanax scutellarium, Moringa oleifera and Piper betle extracts on staphylococcal mastitis animal model <div> <div> <p class="NAbstractNEW"><span lang="EN-US">Inappropriate and prolonged administration of antibiotics in mastitis could cause antibiotic resistance and herbal treatment might could be one alternative treatment. <em>Nothopanax scutellarium</em>, <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, and <em>Piper betle</em> are medicinal plants that contain various active compounds, including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents, but their potentials in treating mastitis are not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of those plants against mastitis in rabbit model induced by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. A total of 25 lactating rabbits (</span><em><span lang="EN-US">Oryctolagus cuniculus</span></em><span lang="EN-US">) </span><span lang="EN-US">weighing 3.0±0.4 kg were grouped into five groups: healthy control; mastitis control, and three treatment groups (<em>Nothopanax scutellarium</em>, <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, and <em>Piper betle</em>). Except the healthy control group, all animals were inoculated with 0.15 mL of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> containing 1.5x10<sup>7</sup>colony forming unit (CFU)/mL on eight days after giving birth. The extract was administered orally after four hours <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>inoculation at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, twice a day for five consecutive days. The number of bacteria in the milk and the level of serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured and histopathological examination of mammary gland tissues were analyzed. The log number of total plate count of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>indicated that </span><span lang="EN-US">all extract groups had significant lower of bacterial logs compared to mastitis control (all comparisons had <em>p</em>&lt;0.05) with the lowest was found in </span><em><span lang="EN-US">Piper betle</span> </em><span lang="EN-US">group, followed by </span><em><span lang="EN-US">Nothopanax scutellarium</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> and <em>Moringa oleifera</em></span><span lang="EN-US">. </span><span lang="EN-US">The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results showed that all ethanolic extract groups had significantly lower levels of IL-6 compared to the mastitis control </span><span lang="EN-US">(all comparisons had <em>p</em>&lt;0.05)</span><span lang="EN-US">. The </span><span lang="EN-US">histopathology</span><span lang="EN-US">assessment suggested that extract groups had lower infiltration of inflammatory cells such as </span><span lang="EN-US">lymphocytes and macrophages</span><span lang="EN-US"> in alveoli compared to the mastitis control group. In conclusion, all three extracts contained antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities and <em>Piper betle</em> had the most effective in reducing bacterial growth and IL-6 level compared to others. </span></p> </div> </div> Cut Sriyanti Tongku N. Siregar Mudatsir Mudatsir Azhari Gani Denny I. Hasan Amalia Sutriana Copyright (c) 2023 Cut Sriyanti, Tongku N. Siregar, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Azhari Gani, Denny I. Hasan, Amalia Sutriana 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 10.52225/narra.v3i2.176 Comparative analysis of accuracy between fine-needle aspiration biopsy and postoperative histopathology for detecting large thyroid nodules: A retrospective observational study <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">To avoid unnecessary surgeries, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an effective and reliable procedure for the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, there have been only a limited number of studies exploring the ability of preoperative FNAB to distinguish malignancy compared to postoperative histopathology in thyroid nodules larger than 4 cm. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of FNAB compared to postoperative histopathology in distinguishing malignancy in thyroid nodules larger than 4 cm. A single-center retrospective observational study was conducted at Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, between January 2014 and December 2018. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. A total of 83 patients were included in the study. The results showed that preoperative FNAB may have the ability to distinguish malignancy compared to postoperative histopathology. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 42.85%, 98.38%, 90.00%, 83.56%, and 84.33%, respectively. These data suggested that ultrasound-guided preoperative FNAB is a reliable diagnostic tool in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules larger than 4 cm, but it has limited capability in distinguishing malignancies. In conclusion, although FNAB may be useful in reducing unnecessary surgeries, histopathology remains the preferred method for confirming malignancy in thyroid nodules.</span></p> </div> </div> Hendra Zufry Nazaruddin Nazaruddin Putri O. Zulfa Krishna W. Sucipto Reno K. Kamarlis Agustia S. Ekadamayanti Anđelija Beočanin Sarah Firdausa Copyright (c) 2023 Hendra Zufry, Nazaruddin Nazaruddin, Putri O. Zulfa, Krishna W. Sucipto, Reno K. Kamarlis, Agustia S. Ekadamayanti, Anđelija Beočanin, Sarah Firdausa 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e206 e206 10.52225/narra.v3i2.206 Quality of life and its predictors among people living with HIV in Muslim majority region: A cross-sectional study in Aceh <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remain significant global health challenges addressed by countries worldwide. The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLHIV), transforming HIV/AIDS from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic disease. However, the increasing number of elderly individuals with HIV who experience early frailty syndrome presents new challenges and potential for diminished quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and to identify its significant predictors in PLHIV patients who have received ARV therapy in Banda Aceh, a Muslim-majority region in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on all PLHIV who received ARV therapy at the voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) polyclinic at Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia between January and February 2023. The WHOQOL-HIV BREF instrument, a multi-dimensional tool developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), was used to assess the quality of life of the PLHIV, and potential predictors were assessed. The Chi-squared test was used to determine the predictors associated with the quality of patient’s lives. Our data indicated that the majority of PLHIV were male (88%), 26–35 years old (78%), employed (92%), and unmarried (54%). Poor quality of life was dominant for the physical health (100%) and social relationships (76%) domains. In contrast, good quality of life was observed in aspects of independence, psychology, and spirituality, all reporting 100% results. Significant associations were found between married status (<em>p</em>=0.004) and medication adherence (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) with higher quality of life among PLHIV. </span><span lang="EN-US">In conclusion, m</span><span lang="EN-US">arried PLHIVs that received support from their partners regarding adherence to therapy exhibited a better quality of life. These results underscore the significance of sustained support systems and adherence strategies to enhance PLHIV's quality of life. </span></p> </div> </div> Maryatun Hasan Kurnia F. Jamil Darmawi Darmawi Maimun Syukri Tita M. Liansyah Anđelija Beočanin Dava Erianza Copyright (c) 2023 Maryatun Hasan, Kurnia F. Jamil, Darmawi Darmawi, Maimun Syukri, Tita M. Liansyah, Anđelija Beočanin, Dava Erianza 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e202 e202 10.52225/narra.v3i2.202 Oxygen saturation profile in traumatic brain injury animal model after propofol administration <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a traumatic that often leads to death due to untreatable cerebral hypoxia, indicated by oxygen saturation of &lt;90%. Cerebral hypoxia is rarely monitored and thereby often overlooked as a cause of mortality and monitoring oxygen saturation is an accurate method to detect the condition. Propofol, an anesthetic agent, is commonly used in the management of TBI; however, its effect on brain tissue and cerebral hypoxia in TBI cases is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of oxygen saturation in TBI animal model after propofol administration. A laboratory experimental study was conducted, involving 18 male <em>Rattus novergicus</em> rats (aged 4–8 weeks with weight between 150–200 grams) divided into three different treatment groups (non-TBI, TBI without propofol, and TBI with propofol). Oxygen saturation was measured regularly from day 1 to day 8 using pulse oximetry. The oxygen saturation percentages were compared between the TBI rats with and without propofol administration using independent Student t-rest. The results revealed significant reductions of oxygen saturation levels of animals within propofol-treated TBI group compared to that of the untreated-TBI group (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05), with the average oxygen saturation ranging from 80.8%±6.96% vs 86.8%±5.48%. This finding suggests a reducing effect of propofol administration on oxygen saturation levels in rats with TBI and this potentially causes cerebral hypoxia.</span></p> </div> </div> Kulsum Kulsum Syahrul Syahrul Kartini Hasbalah Ummu Balqis Taufik Suryadi Copyright (c) 2023 Kulsum Kulsum, Syahrul Syahrul, Kartini Hasbalah, Ummu Balqis, Taufik Suryadi 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e189 e189 10.52225/narra.v3i2.189 Effectiveness of Curcuma domestica leave extract in inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><em><span lang="EN-US">Pseudomonas aeruginosa</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> is one of the Gram-negative bacteria that causes nosocomial infection in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The therapy provided could be antibiotics and the provision of therapy is considered difficult due to antibiotic resistance; therefore, an alternative is needed such as active ingredients from medicinal plants. Turmeric (<em>Curcuma domestica</em>) is believed to have compounds that have antibacterial activities. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of ethanol extract from turmeric leaves against the growth of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. An experimental study was conducted using posttest-only design. Antibacterial activities were determined using disc diffusion method with concentration of 50%, 75%, and 100% <em>Curcuma domestica </em>extract. The positive and negative controls were ciprofloxacin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), respectively. The inhibition zone of 50%, 75%, and 100% extract groups against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> were 8.9 mm, 10.6 mm, and 11.8 mm, respectively. There was no significant different of antibacterial activities between different concentrations of <em>Curcuma domestica</em> (50%, 75% and 100% of extracts). All groups of <em>Curcuma domestica </em>extract had lower antibacterial activities significantly than ciprofloxacin (positive control). This data indicated that the leave extract of <em>Curcuma domestica</em> had</span><span lang="EN-US"> a weak inhibition against the growth of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>.</span></p> </div> </div> Yuziani Yuziani Mumtaz Alvira Juwita Sahputri Copyright (c) 2023 Yuziani Yuziani, Mumtaz Alvira, Juwita Sahputri 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e246 e246 10.52225/narra.v3i2.246 Safety evaluation and effects of cascara pulp Gayo Arabica coffee cream as anti-photoaging in animal model <p>Prolonged sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) exposure causes premature skin aging called photoaging and coffee-derived topical antioxidants may help to reduce this process. Since a significant amount of antioxidant-rich cascara pulp are wasted in coffee processing, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of cascara extract cream of Gayo Arabica coffee pulp (CECGACP) as anti-photoaging in male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) by assessing the skin primary irritation index (PII), skin macroscopic changes and the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups: negative control (base cream only), positive control containing L-ascorbic acid 3%, and three treatment groups treated with cream containing 5%, 7.5% and 10% of CECGACP. The CECGACP was extracted, formulated into cream as a topical treatment and applied on the backs of the rats two times a day, once before the UV exposure and four hours after the exposure. After four weeks, the skins were macroscopically examined, and the TNF-α levels were measured. The PII was assessed after applying the cream 24 hours before UX exposure. Our data suggested that CECGACP was considered safe because there were no erythema and edema formation on the skin of the rats with PII score of 0 (classified as no irritation or negligible). After UV exposure, all rats had visible wrinkles and erythema on the skin in particular in the first week. After administration of CECGACP, both wrinkles and erythema were decreased. The levels of TNF-α varied from 0.15±0.02 ng/mL in the negative control and CECGACP 7.5% rat groups to 0.19±0.03 in the positive control group; however, there was no significant difference among all the groups. Our study suggests that CECGACP is safe to use in Wistar rats and able to reduce the erythema and edema due to UV exposure. However, the application of CECGACP does not provide a significant reduction of TNF-α levels.</p> Wahyu Lestari Sitti Hajar Copyright (c) 2023 Wahyu Lestari, Sitti Hajar 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e204 e204 10.52225/narra.v3i2.204 Coronary heart disease risk factors among academic workers based on the Jakarta Cardiovascular Score: A cross-sectional study <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Change in lifestyle leads to change in disease patterns from infectious diseases and malnutrition to degenerative diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD). The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among Indonesian workers and the general public will not only burden medical care expenses but also reduce work productivity, leading to more work-related injuries and work-related losses. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for CHD (age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and weekly physical activity) and the CHD risk level among university workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted at workers at School of Medicine, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Indonesia. The risk level of CHD was calculated using Jakarta Cardiovascular Score and predicting model analyzed with multiple logistic regression model. Our data found that 58.2%, 25.5% and 16.3% of the university workers had low-, medium- and high-risk to have CHD. The final model indicted that the risk of heart disease was determined by gender, age, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Being male had odds ratio (OR) 30.84, aged &gt;41 years old had OR 11.52, having hypertension had OR 4.87 and having diabetes mellitus had OR 13.99 for having high risk of CHD compared to female, those younger than 41 years old, having no hypertension and having no diabetes mellitus, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggests that more than 15% the respondents (university employees) have high risk of CHD and being male and older, and having hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with risk of CHD. Implantation of the preventive measures is therefore important to be implemented at the universities. </span></p> </div> </div> Harvina Sawitri Nora Maulina Copyright (c) 2023 Harvina Sawitri, Nora Maulina 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 10.52225/narra.v3i2.162 Clinical and oral microbiome pattern of halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Halitosis is caused by a bacterial proteolytic process that induces the production of </span><span lang="EN-US">volatile sulfur compounds</span><span lang="EN-US">, odor-causing gases. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical oral hygiene state and oral </span><span lang="EN-US">microbiome</span><span lang="EN-US"> pattern of halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis. The oral hygiene state of halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis was assessed using the oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), decay missing filled teeth (DMFT), and tongue biofilm. The dorsum of the tongue and subgingival swabs were cultured for bacteria, and bacterial morphology was evaluated using Gram staining. Evaluation of the bacterial genus using the Bergey's systematic bacteriology diagram as a guide. A total of ten patients with periodontitis and gingivitis were included. </span><span lang="EN-US">Our data indicated that the scores of OHI-S and DMFT were different significantly between halitosis patients with periodontitis and gingivitis (both had <em>p</em>&lt;0.001) while tongue biofilm score was not different between groups. </span><span lang="EN-US">On the dorsum of the tongue, periodontitis patients had a significant higher oral microbiome population (85.65x10<sup>6 </sup></span><span lang="EN-US">CFU/mL</span><span lang="EN-US">) compared to those with gingivitis (0.047x10<sup>6 </sup></span><span lang="EN-US">CFU/mL</span><span lang="EN-US">) with <em>p</em>=</span><span lang="EN-US">0.002</span><span lang="EN-US">. In contrast, the number of microbiomes in the subgingival had no significant different between periodontitis and gingivitis. On the dorsum of the tongue, six bacterial genera were isolated from periodontitis cases and seven genera were detected from gingivitis patients. On subgingival, 10 and 15 genera were identified from periodontitis and gingivitis, respectively. Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus were the most prevalent among </span><span lang="EN-US">periodontitis cases while Porphyromonas was the most prevalent in gingivitis patients. In conclusion, although </span><span lang="EN-US">OHI-S and DMFT are different between periodontitis and gingivitis, overlapping of bacterial genera was detected between periodontitis and gingivitis cases. </span></p> </div> </div> Diana S. Ningsih Rinaldi Idroes Boy M. Bachtiar Khairan Khairan Trina E. Tallei Pati Kemala Nur B. Maulydia Ghazi M. Idroes Zuchra Helwani Copyright (c) 2023 Diana S. Ningsih, Rinaldi Idroes, Boy M. Bachtiar, Khairan Khairan, Trina E. Tallei, Pati Kemala, Nur B. Maulydia, Ghazi M. Idroes, Zuchra Helwani 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 10.52225/narra.v3i2.163 The role of mediator suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) on cytokine production during dengue virus infection <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Inability to understand the pathogenesis of severe dengue, in particular the control mechanism of immune responses, has led to high mortality rate for patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The aim of this study was to determine the control mechanism of cytokine production by mediator suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) during DENV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear blood cells (PBMC), isolated from healthy individuals, were infected with dengue virus (DENV)-2 strain SJN-006 Cosmopolitan genotype (isolated from Bali, Indonesia). The relative gene expression of SOCS-3, TLR-3, NFκB, and the cytokine genes (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, </span><span lang="EN-US">interferon inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β)</span><span lang="EN-US">) were measured using qRT-PCR at 6, 12 and 24 hours post infection (hpi). Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the gene expressions while causal correlations were analyzed using regression test and path analyses. DENV-2 infection increased the gene expression of SOCS-3, TLR-3, and NFκB after 12 and 24 hpi. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and MIP-1β genes was increased and peaked at different times post-infection. NFκB and SOCS-3 genes likely have role in the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-6 gene expression, respectively. MIP-1β gene expression was significantly induced by both NFκB and SOCS-3. In conclusion, our study suggested that SOCS-3, TLR-3, and NFκB are important in regulating the production of IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MIP-1β during early phase of DENV-2 infection. This enriches our understanding on pathogenesis pathway of DENV-associated cytokine storm.</span></p> </div> </div> Sri Masyeni Kuntaman Kuntaman Aryati Aryati Muchlis AU. Sofro Usman Hadi Gondo Mastutik Windu Purnomo Agus Santosa Muhammad Iqhrammullah Benediktus Yohan Erni J. Nelwan R. Tedjo Sasmono Copyright (c) 2023 Sri Masyeni, Kuntaman Kuntaman, Aryati Aryati , Muchlis AU. Sofro, Usman Hadi, Gondo Mastutik, Windu Purnomo, Agus Santosa, Muhammad Iqhrammullah, Benediktus Yohan, Erni J. Nelwan, R. Tedjo Sasmono 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 10.52225/narra.v3i2.167 Correlation between high sensitivity C reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with functional capacity in post COVID-19 syndrome patients <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome is one of the causes of reduced functional capacity and work productivity, in particular for healthcare workers. The pathophysiology of the post COVID-19 syndrome is related to complex and multisystem inflammatory mechanisms, and cardiopulmonary exercise rehabilitation program is one of the efforts to improve the recovery process for patients with post COVID-19 syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with functional capacity (VO<sub>2max</sub>) in individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome who received moderate- and high-intensity supervised cardiopulmonary exercise. A prospective cohort study was conducted at the Integrated Cardiac Rehabilitation Center of Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The supervised cardiopulmonary exercise was conducted for six weeks according to the participant's baseline VO<sub>2max</sub>. Spearman's and Pearson's correlation tests were used to assess the correlations. A total of 30 individuals (19 and 11 had moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively) were involved in this study. At moderate intensity exercise, the average Hs-CRP and NLR were 3.3 mg/L and 1.99, respectively; while at high intensity, the values were 3.8 mg/L and 1.79, respectively. No significant correlation between Hs-CRP level and functional capacity in both moderate-intensity and high intensity groups. In contrast, NLR was negatively correlated with functional capacity (<em>r</em>=-0.545, <em>p</em>=0.016) in moderate intensity exercise group. In conclusion, NLR value was negatively correlated with functional capacity in individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome after receiving moderate intensity supervised cardiopulmonary exercise program. Therefore, moderate intensity of cardiopulmonary exercise maybe be used as a program to accelerate the recovery for those with post COVID-19 syndrome. </span></p> </div> </div> Nina Widasari Teuku Heriansyah Muhammad Ridwan Haris Munirwan Ferry D. Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2023 Nina Widasari, Teuku Heriansyah, Muhammad Ridwan, Haris Munirwan, Ferry D. Kurniawan 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e183 e183 10.52225/narra.v3i2.183 Phytocompounds of Nigella sativa seeds extract and their neuroprotective potential via EGR1 receptor inhibition: A molecular docking study <div><span lang="EN-US">Bioactivity of <em>Nigella sativa</em> seed extract has the potential as a neuro-protector, offering its promising utility in the clinical setting for brain injury management. This study aimed to identify the phytocompounds contained in the extract of <em>N. sativa</em> seeds and further screen their respective neuronal anti-inflammatory activities in silico. The extract of <em>N. sativa</em> seeds was prepared through successive maceration using non-polar to polar solvents (n-hexane and ethanol, respectively). The phytocompounds in the ethanolic extract were initially identified through qualitative analysis and further analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The spectral data were compared with the compound library for identification. The identified phytocompounds were then simulated computationally for their binding affinities toward the active pocket of early growth response-1 (EGR1) receptor (PDB: 14r2a). We found that the ethanolic extract of <em>N. sativa </em>seeds were predominantly constituted of hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (17.15%); linoleic acid ethyl ester (15.0%); octadecanoic acid (13.26%); and ethyl oleate (10.38%). The binding affinity of the phytocompounds ranged from -7.49 kcal/mol (methyl palmitoleate) to -14.31 kcal/mol (9-hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester), with 12 compounds having binding affinity &lt; -10 kcal/mol. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of <em>N. sativa </em>seeds are rich with fatty acids that have active as anti-inflammatory and may exert neuronal protection by inhibiting EGR1 receptor. Studies using animal models to confirm the activity are warranted. </span></div> Kulsum Kulsum Syahrul Syahrul Kartini Hasbalah Ummu Balqis Copyright (c) 2023 Kulsum Kulsum, Syahrul Syahrul, Kartini Hasbalah, Ummu Balqis 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 10.52225/narra.v3i2.173 Effects of secretome supplementation on interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, procalcitonin, and the length of stay in acute exacerbation COPD patients <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD)</span> <span lang="EN-US">is associated with significant poor survival. </span><span lang="EN-US">Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) therapy has been a promising treatment for COPD; therefore, it has the potential to be an additional therapy for AECOPD. Its potential is associated with its secretome since it has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the secretome as an adjuvant therapy in reducing the levels of </span><span lang="EN-US">interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (</span><span lang="EN-US">TNF-α)</span><span lang="EN-US">, procalcitonin, and the </span><span lang="EN-US">length of stay in AECOPD patients. </span><span lang="EN-US">A clinical control trial study was conducted among 28 moderate and severe AECOPD patients who were hospitalized from January to February 2023. The control group (n=14) received standard therapy of </span><span lang="EN-US">AECOPD</span><span lang="EN-US"> while the treatment group (n=14) received standard therapy plus secretome 1 ml twice daily for three days. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and procalcitonin were measured at admission and on the fourth day of treatment. The length of stay was calculated from the time the patient was admitted until the patient was discharged from hospital. The data were compared using a paired Student t-test, chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney test as appropriate. In the treatment group, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and procalcitonin after the treatment reduced 13.09 pg/mL, 5.00 pg/mL and 751.26 pg/mL, respectively compared to pre-treatment. In contrast, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and procalcitonin increased 48.56 pg/mL, 44.48 pg/mL and 346.96 pg/mL, respectively after four days of treatment. There was a significant reduction of IL-6, TNF-α and procalcitonin in treatment group compared to the control group with <em>p</em>=0.022, <em>p</em>=0.009 and <em>p</em>=0.001, respectively. However, there was no significant reduction of the length of stay (<em>p</em>=0.072). In conclusion, administration of secretome to AECOPD patients could reduce the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and procalcitonin.</span></p> </div> </div> Fahlevie Fahlevie Hendrastutik Apriningsih Yusup S. Sutanto Reviono Reviono Artrien Adhiputri Jatu Aphridasari Windu Prasetyo Copyright (c) 2023 Hendrastutik Apriningsih, Fahlevie Fahlevie, Yusup S. Sutanto, Reviono Reviono, Artrien Adhiputri, Jatu Aphridasari 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e171 e171 10.52225/narra.v3i2.171 Green algae Caulerpa racemosa compounds as antiviral candidates for SARS-CoV-2: In silico study <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Green algae (<em>Caulerpa racemosa</em>) are known to contain bioactive compounds which are hypothesized to have antiviral activities against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to analyze the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of compounds extracted from the green alga <em>Caulerpa racemosa </em>using in silico analysis. The extract was obtained through maceration with 96% ethanol and the compounds present in the extract were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The binding affinities were analyzed in silico using the PyRx application and visualized in the PyMOL software. GC-MS analysis of <em>Caulerpa racemosa </em>extract showed 92 spectral peaks, each of which was assigned to a bioactive compound. Of the six compounds with a strong binding affinity, n-[1-(1-adamantan-1-yl-propyl)-2,5-dioxo-4-trifluoromethyl-imidazo lidin-4-yl] 4-methoxy-benzamide had the lowest score (-8.1 kcal/mol) against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease binding site, similar with that of remdesivir. The molecular dynamics calculations demonstrated that </span><span lang="EN-US">root means square deviation </span><span lang="EN-US">values of the selected inhibitors remained stable throughout a 15-nanosecond simulation. In conclusion, the in silico analysis suggests that <em>Caulerpa racemosa </em>extract is a potential antiviral candidate against SARS-CoV-2. </span></p> </div> </div> Asmi CMAR. Tassakka Israini W. Iskandar Andi BA. Juniyazaki St Zaenab Jamaluddin F. Alam Haerani Rasyid Kasmiati Kasmiati Ellya Sinurat Fenny M. Dwiany Ronni Martien Abigail M. Moore Copyright (c) 2023 Asmi CMAR. Tassakka, Israini W. Iskandar, Andi BA. Juniyazaki, St Zaenab, Jamaluddin F. Alam, Haerani Rasyid, Kasmiati Kasmiati, Ellya Sinurat, Fenny M. Dwiany, Ronni Martien, Abigail M. Moore 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e179 e179 10.52225/narra.v3i2.179 Effects of SGLT2 inhibitor administration on blood glucose level and body weight in type 1 diabetes rat model <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">The prevalence of diabetes worldwide is increasing and 629 million people are projected to have diabetes by 2045, and the most significant burden of the disease being concentrated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Type 2 diabetes is mainly treated with insulin adjunctive therapies such as metformin to improve insulin sensitivity and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to lower blood glucose levels. However, there was limited study on the application of SGLT2 inhibitors on type 1 diabetes, particularly empagliflozin. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on blood glucose levels and body weights in a rat model of type 1 diabetes. To mimic type 1 diabetes, the rats were injected with streptozotocin 60 mg intra-peritoneally. Twenty-four rat models were randomly divided into four groups: normal rat group (negative control), untreated diabetic rat group (positive control), type 1 diabetic rats treated with metformin, and type 1 diabetic rats treated with empagliflozin. Blood glucose levels and body weight were recorded before and after induced with streptozotocin and on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10 of the treatment with anti-diabetic drugs. This study found that the blood glucose levels before and after treatment significantly decreased in all groups (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05), except in the negative control group. Similar results were observed in body weight of the rats, which all groups experienced weight loss, except the negative control. These results suggested that apart from being used in type 2 diabetes, SGLT2 inhibitors may also be used as a treatment for type 1 diabetes.</span></p> </div> </div> Maimun Syukri Lia M. Zaini Arief S. Kartasasmita Tjahjono D. Gondhowiardjo Ronny Lesmana Copyright (c) 2023 Maimun Syukri, Lia M. Zaini, Arief S. Kartasasmita, Tjahjono D. Gondhowiardjo, Ronny Lesmana 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e194 e194 10.52225/narra.v3i2.194 Antioxidant and antiaging activity of Cinnamomum burmannii and Michelia champaca extract and combinations <div> <div> <p class="NAbstractNEW"><span lang="EN-US">Aging is a natural skin process that occurs due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as excessive exposure to ultraviolet light (photoaging). The mechanism of damage involves the production of excess free radicals that trigger oxidative stress in the skin. Determining the natural products that have high antioxidant activities as antiaging is up most important. <em>Cinnamomum burmannii</em> and <em>Michelia champaca</em> are typical Aceh plants that are believed to have high antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determining the contents of <em>C. burmannii</em> and <em>M. champaca</em> as well as to determine the antioxidant and antiaging activities of either individually or combinations. The qualitative phytochemical and semi-quantitative analysis of the extracts were conducted using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity was examined by radical scavenging using the DPPH radical while the antiaging activity was tested the tyrosinase enzyme inhibition test. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of <em>C. burmannii</em> were higher than <em>M. champaca</em> (66.34 vs 24.71 mg gallic acid equivalent/gr) and (80.52 vs 60.20 mg quercetin equivalent/gr). The inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of <em>M. champaca</em> extract in inhibiting DPPH indicated that <em>M. champaca</em> had a better antioxidant activity than <em>C. burmannii</em>. The combination of <em>C. burmannii</em> and <em>M. champaca</em> extracts had a lower IC₅₀ compared to <em>M. champaca</em> alone. <em>C. burmannii</em> and <em>M. champaca</em> extract had a weak potential to inhibit tyrosinase activity (IC₅₀ value ≥1000 µg/mL). In conclusion, this study indicates that <em>M. champaca</em> and <em>C. burmannii </em>have strong antioxidant activities and these might associate with polyphenol contents.</span></p> </div> </div> Waisul Qarani Fauzul Husna Winda Yulia Zulkarnain Zulkarnain Dedy Syahrizal Basri A. Gani Nirwana L. Sary Bantari WK. Wardhani Copyright (c) 2023 Waisul Qarani, Fauzul Husna, Winda Yulia, Zulkarnain Zulkarnain, Dedy Syahrizal, Basri A. Gani, Nirwana L. Sary, Bantari WK. Wardhani 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e111 e111 10.52225/narra.v3i2.111 Phenotypical and molecular assessments on the pharmacological effects of curcumin in Drosophila melanogaster <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Curcumin, a dietary polyphenol derived from turmeric's rhizome, exhibits a range of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It has been investigated for its therapeutic potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to its ability to inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), modulate oxidative stress, impact cell viability, and regulate gene expression. However, most studies have been limited to in vitro conditions. To address this gap, we conducted in vivo experiments using the fruit fly <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em> to explore the antioxidant activities and biological significance of curcumin. Several parameters were assessed using different assays, including curcumin toxicity assay, fly survival, locomotor response to curcumin treatment (with or without cigarette smoke), trypan blue staining, larval crawling assays, and gene expression analysis. Our data revealed no significant differences in toxicity and locomotor tests across various curcumin concentrations. <em>D. melanogaster</em> tolerated curcumin at concentrations of 0.5 µM, 5 µM, 50 µM, and 500 µM, suggesting its safety without negatively impacting locomotor. Furthermore, curcumin at 5 µM extended the lifespan of <em>D. melanogaster</em>exposed to cigarette smoke, while reversing the negative effects of smoke exposure on gut cell viability and larval locomotor activity. In conclusion, curcumin administration appeared safe for <em>D. melanogaster</em>, with potential benefits for longevity and locomotory function. These findings support the idea that curcumin possesses in vivo antioxidant properties and may serve as a promising pharmacological agent. However, further study is needed to explore its potential applications in human health and disease management, particularly in the context of COPD.</span></p> </div> </div> Nur R. Rumata Dewi Purwaningsih Asbah Asbah Muh. Fadhil As’ad Deepak Chadran Talha B. Emran Firzan Nainu Copyright (c) 2023 Nur R. Rumata, Dewi Purwaningsih, Asbah Asbah, Muh. Fadhil As’ad, Deepak Chadran, Talha B. Emran, Firzan Nainu 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e117 e117 10.52225/narra.v3i2.117 Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: A scoping review of available tools <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">One of the problems faced after a disaster is health service for victims and hospitals play a critical role in handling disaster victims. Therefore, hospitals must enhance their preparedness and establish a disaster-safe environment to effectively fulfill their role as a provider of health services during a crisis. The aim of this scoping review was to identify hospital disaster preparedness tools used around the globe and to identify the critical aspects that need to be included in hospital disaster preparedness. This study used the five stages of Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework to determine what disaster preparedness tools can be used in a hospital setting. The electronic literature searches of English articles published between 2018 and 2023 were conducted using PubMed, Elsevier, ProQuest, ISI Web Science, and Google Scholar databases. The searched keywords were combined into several search terms such as sub-discipline, subtitle, year, language, and content type. The keywords of sub-title searching were “preparedness”, “hospital” and “disaster”. After applying some inclusion criteria, ten articles out of 1,221 identified records were included in the final analysis. The World Health Organization (WHO) Hospital Safety Index, WHO Hospital Emergency Checklist or their modified versions, and modified Public Health Emergency Preparedness were tools used in assessing hospital disaster preparedness. These tools evaluate some aspects such as structural safety, non-structural safety, and functional capacity. The studies indicated that each tool used to measure hospital disaster preparedness has strengths and weaknesses in each assessed aspect. Although some tools have been recommended to assess hospital disaster preparedness, assessing each tool validity and reliability are critical and needs to be conducted. </span></p> </div> </div> Brury A. Husaini Sugiarto Sugiarto Safrizal Rahman Rina S. Oktari Copyright (c) 2023 Brury A. Husaini, Sugiarto Sugiarto, Safrizal Rahman, Rina S. Oktari 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e210 e210 10.52225/narra.v3i2.210 Parental stature as a risk factor for stunting in Indonesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis <p>Stunting is defined by height of more than two standard deviations below the World<br />Health Organization's (WHO) child growth standard median. It is a significant nutritional<br />problem in developing countries, where in 2021, Indonesia recorded a stunting prevalence<br />at 24.4%, slightly higher than the global prevalence (22%). Reducing the prevalence of<br />stunting has been the focus of the current administration in the Indonesian government,<br />as delineated in the 2020–2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan. Globally,<br />many studies have addressed parental stature as a risk factor of stunting. However,<br />systematic reviews that summarized and critically appraised the relationship between<br />parental stature and the incidence of stunting in Indonesia was scarce. This systematic<br />review aimed to assess parental stature as a risk factor for stunting among Indonesian<br />toddlers. Studies were searched through PubMed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar and<br />Mendeley. Studies on Indonesian toddlers under five years old living in Indonesia were<br />included. The quality of the included studies was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute<br />(JBI) critical appraisal tool. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form<br />and were analyzed using Cochrane’s RevMan 5.3. Twenty-seven prospective and<br />retrospective cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included with a total<br />4041 children. Out of 27 included studies, eight were found to be of low, seven of moderate<br />and twelve of high quality. The result showed that parental stature was associated with the<br />incidence of stunting among toddlers in Indonesia, either the mother only (odds ratio<br />(OR) 1.92; 95% confidence interval (95%CI: 1.71–2.15), the father only (OR 5.21; 95%CI:<br />1.71–15.86) or both parents (OR 3.01; 95%CI: 2.41–3.75). However, studies on father and<br />both parental statures suffered from substantial heterogeneity, imprecision and mixed<br />qualities, therefore, they should be cautiously interpreted.</p> Mazaya P. Amriviana Cut Khairunnisa Teguh H. Sasongko Copyright (c) 2023 Mazaya P. Amriviana, Cut Khairunnisa, Teguh H. Sasongko 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e144 e144 10.52225/narra.v3i2.144 Penile rehabilitation effectiveness after prostate cancer treatment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Prostate cancer treatment can significantly impact erectile function, and penile rehabilitation has been proposed to improve the impacts. However, the effectiveness of penile rehabilitations after treatment of prostate cancer is scarce. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions of penile rehabilitation program after prostate cancer treatment. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases, PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated interventions for penile rehabilitation after prostate cancer treatment. Studies that met our inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed, and data were synthesized and analyzed. We identified 11 randomized controlled trials that evaluated different interventions for penile rehabilitation after prostate cancer treatment. The interventions included the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections, vacuum erection devices, and penile rehabilitation programs. The data suggest that these phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernous injections, vacuum erection devices, and penile rehabilitation programs are promising in improving erectile function after prostate cancer treatment. However, the optimal timing and duration of these interventions remain unclear, and there is a need for further research to determine their long-term effectiveness and safety. Healthcare providers should consider individualized approaches to penile rehabilitation, taking into account patient characteristics and preferences.</span></p> </div> </div> Roshan Prasad Mayur Wanjari Yeshwant R. Lamture Sampada Late Ranjana Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Roshan Prasad, Mayur Wanjari, Yeshwant R. Lamture, Sampada Late, Ranjana Sharma 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e174 e174 10.52225/narra.v3i2.174 Risk factors of MDR-TB and impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on escalating of MDR-TB incidence in lower-middle-income countries: A scoping review <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment in many ways that might lead to increasing the prevalence of multi-drugs-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in lower-middle-income-countries (LMICs). This scoping review aimed to identify the risk factors of MDR-TB and to determine the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on MDR-TB prevalence in LMICs. This study was reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guideline. The relevant keywords were used to search studies in three databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect and SpringerLink) to identify the related articles. The English-written articles published from January 2012 to December 2022 that explored risk factors or causes of MDR-TB in LMICs were included. Out of 1,542 identified articles, 17 retrospective, prospective, case-control and cross-sectional studies from ten LMICs met were included in this scoping review. Twenty-one risk factors were discovered, with prior TB treatment (relapsed cases), diabetes, living area, living condition, smoking and low socioeconomic status were the main factors in developing MDR-TB during COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic increased the MDR-TB prevalence through drug resistance transmission inside households, the distance between home and healthcare facilities and low socioeconomic status. This scoping review demonstrates how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the rising incidence of MDR-TB in LMICs. </span></p> </div> </div> Ichsan Ichsan Lynda Redwood-Campbell Nissa N. Mahmud Herlina Dimiati Muhammad Yani Mudatsir Mudatsir Maimun Syukri Copyright (c) 2023 Ichsan Ichsan, Lynda Redwood-Campbell, Nissa N. Mahmud , Herlina Dimiati, Muhammad Yani, Mudatsir Mudatsir , Maimun Syukri 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e220 e220 10.52225/narra.v3i2.220 Systemic manifestation of necrotic erythema nodosum leprosum: A case report of a fatal leprosy <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Necrotic erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an uncommon manifestation of type 2 lepra reaction, encountered in lepromatous and borderline lepromatous cases of leprosy. Necrotic ENL is associated with the involvement of multiple organs, therefore delayed diagnosis and treatment will lead to complications and poor prognosis. The aim of this case report was to report a challenging case of necrotic ENL misdiagnosed with multiple cellulitis since there were no signs of prior leprosy nor had any antimycobacterial treatment. A 45-year-old man was presented to the surgery department of Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, with complaints of fever, joint pain, and painful tender skin lesions with ulceration over the trunk, extremities, and ears for one month. The patient was diagnosed clinically with multiple cellulitis and underwent a debridement procedure. Clinical improvement was absent, the patient was then consulted to the dermatology department. Physical examination showed normal vital signs, madarosis, inguinal lymphadenopathy, thickening of nerves, and sensation of numbness in both hands and feet. Laboratory examinations on admission showed leucocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, and elevated creatinine and ureum level. A slit skin smears examination yielded positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) with a bacteriological index (BI) value of 3+ and morphological index (MI) of 72%. The patient was diagnosed with </span>lepromatous leprosy<span lang="EN-US">with necrotic ENL reaction. Intravenous methylprednisolone and cefoperazone-sulbactam were given. Multidrug therapy mulitbacillary (MDT-MB) without dapsone, and ofloxacin 400 mg was initiated. On day 17, the patient had septic shock. The patient became unconscious and experienced death. This case highlights that medical professionals should be aware of the various manifestations of necrotic ENL to correctly diagnose and provide treatment as soon as possible to prevent mortality, especially in leprosy-endemic country, Indonesia. </span></p> </div> </div> Mimi Maulida Vella Vella Sulamsih S. Budini Reno K. Kamarlis Fachrul Junaidi Aldilla Pradistha Mikyal Bulqiah Copyright (c) 2023 Mimi Maulida, Vella Vella, Sulamsih S. Budini, Reno K. Kamarlis, Fachrul Junaidi, Aldilla Pradistha, Mikyal Bulqiah 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e216 e216 10.52225/narra.v3i2.216 Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: Challenges in diagnosis and management <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), also known as OHVIRA syndrome (obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly) is a complex congenital malformation characterized by a triad including uterine didelphys, hemivaginal obstruction, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. In this case report, we present a case of HWWS along with the challenges in diagnosis and multi-step treatment processes. A 25-year-old woman presented to Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital in Banda Aceh, Indonesia with a chief complaint of lower back pain for the past six months (two months after the marriage). The patient also complained of late menstruation, followed by thick yellow vaginal discharge resembling malodorous pus occurring after menstruation. Additionally, a history of fever and pain during intercourse was reported. Vaginal examination revealed purulent fluid emerging from a pinpoint hole on the right vaginal wall. Vaginal palpation revealed a two-branched uterus, along with a palpable cystic mass on the right vaginal wall. Ultrasound examination indicated the presence of the right and left hemi-uteri, measuring 4.7x1.35 cm and 5.7x1.26 cm in size, respectively with both ovaries appearing normal. Fluid accumulation was observed in the right hemivagina, while the left kidney exhibited normal features, and the right kidney showed signs of hypoplasia. The patient was diagnosed with uterus didelphys, fluid accumulation in the hemivagina, and right kidney hypoplasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed uterus didelphys and revealed narrowing of the right hemivagina, suggestive of HWWS. Hysteroscopy was performed to resect the vaginal septum with laparoscopic guidance, along with drainage of hematocolpos, pyocolpos and placement of an intracervical mold. Despite HWWs having conservative gradual management, it was opted to perform vaginal septum resection, hematocolpos and pyocolpos drainage and placement of an intracervical mould in this case, in order to relieve symptoms and restore the reproductive and sexual functions. </span></p> </div> </div> Roziana Roziana Hilwah Nora Cut R. Maharani Cut M. Yeni Tengku P. Dewi Rusnaidi Rusnaidi Ima Indirayani Rizka Aditya Zain Al-shather Siti D. Haryani Copyright (c) 2023 Roziana Roziana, Hilwah Nora, Cut R. Maharani, Cut M. Yeni, Tengku P. Dewi, Rusnaidi Rusnaidi, Ima Indirayani, Rizka Aditya, Zain Al-shather, Siti D. Haryani 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e223 e223 10.52225/narra.v3i2.223 A choledochal cyst type IVa in a child treated with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">A choledochal cyst is a bile duct anomaly that disrupts the transportation of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Choledochal cysts are rare, occurring in approximately one out of every 100,000 to 150,000 children in Western countries, with a girls-to-boys ratio of 4:1. Immediate surgery to excise the cyst and construct a biliary-enteric continuity is necessary to treat this condition. This case-report aimed to present a child with choledochal cyst type IVa who underwent a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A 3-year-11-month-old girl with an abdominal mass experienced jaundice, nausea, and vomiting over the past two years, which worsened in the last month. Abdominal ultrasonography indicated intrahepatic biliary dilatation. Abdominal <span class="y2iqfc">computed tomography (CT) scan</span> results confirmed a choledochal cyst type IVa, characterized by fusiform cyst dilatation at the bilateral intrahepatic bile duct, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. The cyst exerted pressure on the pancreas and small intestine. Before the surgery, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg/day. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed, involving </span>the complete excision of the extrahepatic bile duct <span lang="EN-US">to reconstruct the biliary system. During the surgery, a retroperitoneal cyst measuring 20 cm x 10 cm with a volume of 200 cc was discovered. Following the surgery, the patient showed clinical improvement. Patient <span class="y2iqfc">follow-ups indicated that no </span>complications such as wound infection, acute pancreatitis, and the formation of pancreatic or biliary fistula occurred. This case highlights that Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy proves to be an effective surgical approach for managing choledochal cyst type IVa in children, helping to prevent further complications.</span></p> </div> </div> Sulaiman Yusuf Alivia R. Nuriyanto Nurul Nadia Muntadhar Muntadhar Yumna Muzakkir Nurhayani D. Susanti Zain Al-shather Fenny Harrika Copyright (c) 2023 Sulaiman Yusuf, Alivia R. Nuriyanto, Nurul Nadia, Muntadhar Muntadhar, Yumna Muzakkir, Nurhayani D. Susanti, Zain Al-shather, Fenny Harrika 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e201 e201 10.52225/narra.v3i2.201 Severe hypocalcemia as a cause of transient ischemic attack? A debatable case and evidence from literature <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Hypocalcemia and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are different medical disorders; however, limited evidence suggests a possible link between the two. The underlying pathomechanisms by which hypocalcemia may cause cerebrovascular damage are difficult to comprehend. The aim of the study was to present an individual experiencing TIA that possibly due to severe hypocalcemia that associated with hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy; and to explore the available evidence of its cause-effect relationship through available literature. A 68-year-old man presented to Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia with complaints of weakness, especially in the right limbs that had worsened in the last week. The patient experienced unconsciousness for an hour before the admission; disorientation and anterograde amnesia over the time of recovering of consciousness. Other complaints included frequent muscle cramps, numbness in both arms and legs, dizziness, swallowing difficulty, nausea, and vomiting. The patient had a history of total thyroidectomy for a large struma diffuse 18 years ago and was prescribed several medications. However, the patient was overwhelmed by forgetfulness which had become more frequent in recent months resulting in medication nonadherence. The vital sign was stable and Chovsteck's sign was positive. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) revealed impairment in the visuospatial/executive component and delayed memory. Laboratory tests revealed severe hypocalcemia, altered thyroid function, hypomagnesemia, elevated D-dimer and fibrinogen, and vitamin D deficiency. TIA and severe hypocalcemia were proposed as the diagnosis. Prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, including calcium supplementation, anticoagulation, and neuroprotective agents, led to significant clinical improvement. Evidence from available literature suggests that there is a possible link between severe hypocalcemia and TIA that occurred in this patient. However, more studies are warrant to establish this cause-effect relationship. </span></p> </div> </div> Hendra Zufry Maulina Debbyousha Sarah Firdausa Agustia S. Ekadamayanti Krishna W. Sucipto Julia Sari Copyright (c) 2023 Hendra Zufry, Maulina Debbyousha, Sarah Firdausa, Agustia S. Ekadamayanti, Krishna W. Sucipto, Julia Sari 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e228 e228 10.52225/narra.v3i2.228 A large primary lung abscess due to Klebsiella oxytoca: How critical the combination between early antibiotic therapy and bronchoscopy? <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">Lung abscess is a microbial infection that can cause necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities. Antibiotics and bronchoscopy are needed in the management of large lung abscess to prevent further complications. However, some of the cases have poor clinical improvement. The aim of this </span><span lang="EN-US">case report was to describe a patient with large lung abscess who had well responded to antibiotic therapy combined with bronchoscopy drainage. </span><span lang="EN-US">We reported a 55-year-old man with a lung abscess presented with initial symptom of acute productive cough for two weeks. Chest </span><span lang="EN-US">computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast of patient indicated a massive abscess on the right lung segment with a size of 10.9 x 10.41 x 8 cm. </span><span lang="EN-US">Laboratory examination showed leukocytosis. Bronchoscopy was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Antibiotic resistance test was conducted from bronchoalveolar lavage sample to determine the most suitable antibiotics for the patient. The culture yielded a positive for </span><em><span lang="EN-US">Klebsiella oxytoca</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> that was resistant to ampicillin and cefazolin. The bacterium was sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, cefepime, nitrofurantoin, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tigecycline, trimethoprim-</span> <span lang="EN-US">sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Levofloxacin 750 mg injection </span><span lang="EN-US">was given </span><span lang="EN-US">for 14 days followed with oral levofloxacin 500 mg once a day for four weeks a</span><span lang="EN-US">nd bronchoscopy to stop the microbial infection process in the lung tissues. Lung abscess reduced significantly and the patient was followed until recovered. In conclusion, </span><span lang="EN-US">early combination therapy of adequate antibiotics and bronchoscopy is </span><span lang="EN-US">effective in treating a massive lung abscess caused by </span><em><span lang="EN-US">Klebsiella</span><span lang="EN-US"> oxytoca</span></em><span lang="EN-US">.</span></p> </div> </div> Brigitta DA. Hapsari Melita Melita Affan R. Ismail Farah NT. Djatmika Copyright (c) 2023 Brigitta DA. Hapsari, Melita Melita, Affan R. Ismail, Farah NT. Djatmika 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e169 e169 10.52225/narra.v3i2.169 Chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO PCI) in an intractable heart failure patient: Is there any benefit? <div> <div> <p class="Abstract-Narra"><span lang="EN-US">One of the most difficult procedures in interventional cardiology is the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on a chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesion case. To rate the difficulty of guidewire crossing, several angiographic scoring methods have been developed such as the </span>Japan CTO (<span lang="EN-US">J-CTO) score. Here we demonstrate the advantages of revascularization using PCI procedure in a CTO case with intractable heart failure. A 53-year-old man presented to the emergency room of Dr. Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia with acute decompensated heart failure. The patient had a history of past PCI with two patent drug eluting stents (DES): one in the left main (LM)-left anterior descending (LAD) artery and one in the distal left circumflex (LCX) artery. The patient had three times rehospitalizations in the last three months. According to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, the right coronary artery was remained functional; however, the </span>lesion was categorized into very difficult level (J-CTO &gt;3). The <span lang="EN-US">PCI was carried out on the right coronary artery and the blood vessel was successfully revascularized after applying multiple techniques. Following the procedure, the heart failure was treated and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) that performed 12 days after the PCI increased from 220 to 260 meters. The success of this case depended on a comprehensive history taking, adequate imaging methods, and the selection of the proper tools and PCI strategy. In conclusion, despite the challenges, PCI is still an option for patients with persistent complete occlusion. The PCI requires comprehensive preparation and the use of angiographic scoring systems, such as the J-CTO score, to determine the approach and the likelihood of success.</span></p> </div> </div> Haris Munirwan Fahmi A. Kusyanto Zanisa Zanisa Muhammad H. Latief Copyright (c) 2023 Haris Munirwan, Fahmi A. Kusyanto, Zanisa Zanisa, Muhammad H. Latief 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e140 e140 10.52225/narra.v3i2.140 Coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis and small cell lung carcinoma: A significant problem in tuberculosis-endemic country? <div> <div> <p class="NAbstractNEW"><span lang="EN-US">Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer are public health problems, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The coexistence of the two diseases has rarely been reported while their causative association has been noticed leading to diagnosis delayed and prognosis worsening. In this case report, we present the case of a patient with coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis and small cell lung carcinoma. A 54-year-old male was presented with the complained of lower left chest pain for six months, which was getting worse four days before admission to the hospital. The patient also complained of cough and decreased appetite and weight loss. Initial chest X-ray revealed an infiltrate and cavity in the upper right lung and inhomogeneous consolidation in the left paracardial. After the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and was given anti-tuberculosis drugs for two months, the cavity and consolidation decreased with no clinically significant improvement. We performed a bronchoscopy with suspicion of lung cancer and a forceps biopsy in which small cell carcinoma was confirmed. The patient received two cycles of chemotherapy and anti-tuberculosis was continued for four months. During the observation in the fourth month, there was a reduction in the tumor size. This case highlights that similarity of clinical symptoms between pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer often lead to misdiagnosis of both. Therefore, in the absence of complete clinical and radiological improvement in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, the coexistence of lung cancer should be considered. This also highlights that early diagnosis is critical for the favorable outcome. </span></p> </div> </div> Yunita Arliny Dewi B. Yanifitri Muhammad Purqan Muhammad Fachri Copyright (c) 2023 Yunita Arliny, Dewi B. Yanifitri, Muhammad Purqan, Muhammad Fachri 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 3 2 e135 e135 10.52225/narra.v3i2.135